The word museum used in Greek as ‘mousein’. In Ancient Greece important objects were gathered and treasury buildings were built to exhibit these objects. These structures were used as a center of social activities and also there were philosophical speeches in Hellenistic period. These structures were meeting place of intellectuals. They designated philosophical institutions or place of contemplation. Also, museum was used to improve cultural level of society.
Private Collection to Public Exhibition
In 15th century Europe museum was described the collection of Lorenzo de’ Medici. By the 17th century it used to describe collection of curiosities. The idea of an institution called museum and established to preserve and display a collection to the public was established in 18th century which is British Museum. During 19th century and most of 20th century the word museum denoted a building housing cultural material to which the public had access.
The first real scene of the transition from the mystery of the Renaissance cabinets to rationalist museology is the Louvre. However, the first museum designed and constructed according to the ‘revolutionary’, ‘enlightened’ museum discipline is the Berlin Altes Museum, the work of Schinkel. Schinkel translates Boullée’s dreams into his own mind. The rotunda in the center of the museum is a reference to his friend Hegel as well as his master Boullée. The museum plan is a schematic diagram of the modern, rational, Greek-centric, historically historiographical art history of Winckelmann (1717-1768): Nations (national schools), each starting from ancient Greece, occupying separate galleries, are displayed in a hierarchical manner by their deeds, the progress of the history of civilization.
Berlin Altes Museum
Berlin Altes Museum
In the book ‘The Remarkable of Istanbul, Zeynep Çelik’ tells about the public space and the westernization of the structures in the section until Abdulhamit is reduced from the throne. The difference of the Ottomans was that they did not live in a situation like colonization and it reacted differently than in other countries and this situation especially showed itself in Istanbul. She mentioned that the important point such as the reconstructed Byzantine period and the post-conquest Islamic viewpoint of the 19th century were the changes.
In this book, three main invented traditions are mentioned, first the laws and regulations in public areas and city design, the second is the mentality provided by these written laws and regulations, such as effective road networks, monumental squares and uniformed public cover, and the third in Europe the introduction of similarities to structures made with the newly emerging architectural vision.
In Ottoman Period, the first building designed as a museum was built by architect Paul Vaullary and opened in 1891. When it opened its name was Museum-i Hümayun, and today is Istanbul Archeology Museum. In this museum there were museum-school relation. Therefore we can say that this museum is a space where information is processed and exhibited and we looked at the façade of the structure, it is the reflection of collection inside the museum and become showcase of them.
Istanbul Archeology Museum
Istanbul Archeology Museum
Evkaf-ı Islamiye Museum, which was the foundation of today’s Turkish Islamic Art Museum , was selected in 1914 by the works of the houses of the empire, and it was opened under the name of Süleymaniye Mosque. Museum has a courtyard and exhibition spaces surround this courtyard.
Ankara Ethnography Museum was desiged by Arif Hikmet Koyunoğlu in 1925-1927. The pieces are mostly religious and ethnic pieces. It also has a courtyard surrounded by display spaces.
The site is in Konya Street, Çukurambar. In the vicinity of the site there are many health clinics. Therefore, as a group, we proposed to design a research and technology building on health. Such a building for the context of Çukurambar is quite reasonable since it is supposed to be cooperation with related facilities. Konya Street is so crucial because it has quite heavy vehicular traffic. Another surrounding street will be done when 1071 buildings are completed. It will be more living street when compared to Konya Street because of functions provided by 1071 buildings. Therefore, I decided on functions according to characteristics of the streets.
In program there are 3 main function which are labs, health clinic and academic. Therefore, masses are shaped according to these function as theoretical, practical and professional. And also there is another mass that creates social spaces. It envelopes and associates main spaces. Since labs and academic spaces should be more strict and controlled, this social mass by lifting up lab and academic masses, it limits direct access to them.
There is a park and with reference to this park green flows to down and make some terraces and also there is a small pedestrian road in site and slum houses use it to reach their house and with reference to it I created a social pedestrian road and I merged it with green to create social transition.