ARCH462 | Profession and Practice | History of the Profession in Turkey

In the continuation of the lecture of Bilge İmamoğlu about the architectural practice, we saw how the professionalism process proceeds in Turkey.

The evolution of professionalization in Turkey has similar order. Due to the need to produce and circulate knowledge centralized educational institutions emerged. Higher education system was created as a western based, modern and contemporary education system. The first technical school for developing navy which is Mühendishane-i Bahri Hümayun, today’s Istanbul Technical University, had opened in 1782. And after that, chronologically, Mekteb-i Berri Hümayun (1795), Mekteb-i Mülkiye (1859), Mekteb-i Sanayi-i Nefise-i Şahane (1882), today’s Mimar Sinan University, Hendese-i Mülkiye (1884) and Dar-ül Fünun (1845) was opened. In later times, technical profession education is required around the country therefore METU, KTU, EAU was opened.

At the same time, there were some other progress in terms of ‘publication of scholar and professional journals, formation of professional organization, social legitimacy of explicit rights for occupational privileges and the state’s legal approval for those rights and privileges’. In 1908, the Ottoman Society of Engineers and Architects, in 1927 the Society of Turkish Architects, also, in 1954, Union of Chambers of Turkish Architects and Engineers were founded. There were some law regulations about the use of titles of Engineer and Architect in 1927. In 1931, Mimar (Arkitekt) which is the first architectural journal in Turkish was published.

After the proclamation of the republic, there were revolution in country and everything was changing very fastly. In this era, architecture became more contemporary and in this period some important architects became up to date. Vedat Tek who is architect of second assemble building in Ankara and Sirkeci train station in İstanbul and Mimar Kemalettin are the examples of first professional architects of Turkish Republic. And also there are some other architects that came from other countries such as Bruno Taut and Ernst Arnold Egli and they had the professional rights in Turkey. However, because of political environment, share of the market became problematic. There were some debates in terms of nationalism and professionalism. Also, this situation created some protests in time, in order not to provide Turkish architects to be professional in their own country.

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