The second reading assignment is also from Spiro Kostof which is the second chapter called The Cave and The Sky: Stone Age Europe.
From the start of human beings, making space is the first and one of the earliest human need so architecture has showed up from this time and they arranged places according to satisfy their needs.
All people describe and think architecture as a shelter, as a roof over heads like they said because of the feelings of immunity and being secure but architecture more than this. Boundary and monuments limit space and create some organizations so with the help of these, humans created their own order in nature.
In the time of primitive (first human generation) because of searching sufferable climate and food, they benefited what nature give them so they used the caves as a shelter and so longer they organized their lives.
In the Old Stone Age, the role of caves went beyond just a shelter. Because of the mysterious side of death, they leant to prayer and the caves became a religious places. In that period, the hunter began to use art for express and tell something in a factual manner. For example in the cave Lascaux was covered by animals like reindeer, bison, deer, horse. However human figure was minute amount because the hunters’ point of view, animals have seemed independent and strong in contrast the hunters were dependent and weak.
In the New Stone Age, farming and animals husbandry came into existence. Because of increase in population, they needed more food so they went toward to food production instead of hunting (which is not secure when we compared to farming) so they adopted a sedentary life and architecture somehow changed according to this basic changes in social life and behaviour. Boundary and monuments manifested themselves. There was bordered settlements and farmland (Farmland is divided into individual fields.)