Theme Proposal and Searches for İstanbul Tepebaşı

During the 14th century, Galata with its urban form and structures used to display its period’s typical features as a Mediterranean city. It had become an important part of the city where commercial relations with the West were established and carried on, and this characteristic of the area had continued. In 15th century The most important axis of the region was the Voyvoda Avenue (today’s Bankalar Avenue), which extended parallel to the shore line and on which were lined the administrative structures of the colony.

Beyond the Galata walls, the Pera region, which was composed of vineyards-orchards and called as ‘Pera Vineyards’, had started to be built up gradually from the middle of the 18th century onwards. During the 19th century, on the other hand, an inclination had begun in Galata to extend towards the open areas beyond the walls. While the vacant areas had begun to be redeveloped by splendid structures led by the embassy buildings which lined around the main axis called Rue de Pera (today’s İstiklal Avenue).

The masonry embassy buildings were contributing to the region’s European image. In spite of the resemblances in the settlement pattern, a different trend was observed from the point of view of social, cultural and architectural development.

grand balThroughout the carnival season, bales were being organized almost everywhere. The bales given for the benefit of associations or Embassies were not looking for examples in the West. Greek, Armenian, Jewish and Italian ballads were announced in advance banners, and newspapers were also showing their ads.

A.Ubicini observed that Galata merchants would walk through the narrow district which connected Galata and Pera after work, and would look at Petit Champs des Morts and Genoese structures on the way. After having dinner at home they would take part in the evening’s entertainment.50 This active participation in Pera’s nightlife in the district developed society, and this gained the attention of Pera’s inhabitants.

The French and the Italian theatres were located in the central area. And also Petit Champs des Mort was transformed to a theatre (Tepebaşı Şehir Tiyatrosu).

The posters of the plays to be exhibited in the theater are prepared and also mentioned in newspaper ads.

Especially in the second half of the century, Pera inhabitants slowly witnessed the changing face of the district with the theatres, passages, cafes, shops and other cultural public and private places. With the establishment of department stores, they could find also direct shopping amenities and had the possibility to see products up close. These stores also started to make their advertisement with some posters to increase their sales and also to compete with each other.

The biggest transformation in Tepebaşı is; the arrival of the famous Orient Express in 1889 from Paris to Istanbul after the start of direct train services from Paris to Istanbul to the passengers of the high standard of service has been able to serve the needs of the guests. Therefore, some important hotel were opened to service. Such as, Grand Hotel de Londres, Bristol Hotel (today’s Pera Museum) and Pera Palas. And this process contributed to the development of travel and tourism sectors in the Pera region. And some travel and tourism brochures was published.

In the changing and developing process, visualization in the fields of travel, tourism, entertainment and trade has an important place. Therefore, collections in the museum include advertisement and poster visualizations under trade and capitalism, entertainment and visuality and travel and tourism headings.


ARCH462 | Profession and Practice | History of the Profession in Turkey

In the continuation of the lecture of Bilge İmamoğlu about the architectural practice, we saw how the professionalism process proceeds in Turkey.

The evolution of professionalization in Turkey has similar order. Due to the need to produce and circulate knowledge centralized educational institutions emerged. Higher education system was created as a western based, modern and contemporary education system. The first technical school for developing navy which is Mühendishane-i Bahri Hümayun, today’s Istanbul Technical University, had opened in 1782. And after that, chronologically, Mekteb-i Berri Hümayun (1795), Mekteb-i Mülkiye (1859), Mekteb-i Sanayi-i Nefise-i Şahane (1882), today’s Mimar Sinan University, Hendese-i Mülkiye (1884) and Dar-ül Fünun (1845) was opened. In later times, technical profession education is required around the country therefore METU, KTU, EAU was opened.

At the same time, there were some other progress in terms of ‘publication of scholar and professional journals, formation of professional organization, social legitimacy of explicit rights for occupational privileges and the state’s legal approval for those rights and privileges’. In 1908, the Ottoman Society of Engineers and Architects, in 1927 the Society of Turkish Architects, also, in 1954, Union of Chambers of Turkish Architects and Engineers were founded. There were some law regulations about the use of titles of Engineer and Architect in 1927. In 1931, Mimar (Arkitekt) which is the first architectural journal in Turkish was published.

After the proclamation of the republic, there were revolution in country and everything was changing very fastly. In this era, architecture became more contemporary and in this period some important architects became up to date. Vedat Tek who is architect of second assemble building in Ankara and Sirkeci train station in İstanbul and Mimar Kemalettin are the examples of first professional architects of Turkish Republic. And also there are some other architects that came from other countries such as Bruno Taut and Ernst Arnold Egli and they had the professional rights in Turkey. However, because of political environment, share of the market became problematic. There were some debates in terms of nationalism and professionalism. Also, this situation created some protests in time, in order not to provide Turkish architects to be professional in their own country.

ARCH462 | Profession and Practice | Architectural Practice

Lecture is conducted under the topic of architectural practice by Bilge İmamoğlu. Firstly, lecture concentrated on the terms profession, professional, professionalism, professionalization and their dictionary meaning. Profession refers to ‘type of a job that requires special education’; professional refers to ‘set of skills, judgement and behaviour that expected from well-trained people’; professionalism refers to ‘the skill, quality and high standards of behaviour expected of a professional person’, also professionalism refers to ‘act of profession’; professionalization refers to ‘a process of becoming professional’. Equivalent of the term profession in Turkish is an Arabic verb meslek, ‘from the root of süluk, entering a route, an occupation or a religious act, an attitude’.

Profession and practice are a kind of communication between person and society. Being professional is a declaration to society. Educational institutions such as universities and certificates are official and public declarations, they are proof to perform a specific job.

The evolution of professionalization is related with enlightenment, industrialization and urbanization. For example, until the modernization period medicine is a practice but after modernization it become a profession.

The process of being professional starts with a system of production and circulation of knowledge specific to the occupation within centralized educational institutions. Publication of scholar and professional journal is a medium to continue the distribution of knowledge produced within and after an academic institution. After that this process continues with formation of professional organization and they defence rights of professions and also establish relation between state, society and profession. RIBA (1834) and AIA (1857) are the first examples of these institutional organizations. Also, social legitimacy of explicit rights for occupational privileges is another step for being professional and this refers to that you are acknowledged by society. And final step is the state’s legal approval for those rights and privileges and it is an exception by law, society and state.

About Museums

The word museum used in Greek as ‘mousein’. In Ancient Greece important objects were gathered and treasury buildings were built to exhibit these objects. These structures were used as a center of social activities and also there were philosophical speeches in Hellenistic period. These structures were meeting place of intellectuals. They designated philosophical institutions or place of contemplation. Also, museum was used to improve cultural level of society.

Private Collection to Public Exhibition

In 15th century Europe museum was described the collection of Lorenzo de’ Medici. By the 17th century it used to describe collection of curiosities. The idea of an institution called museum and established to preserve and display a collection to the public was established in 18th century which is British Museum. During 19th century and most of 20th century the word museum denoted a building housing cultural material to which the public had access.


British Museum


British Museum

The first real scene of the transition from the mystery of the Renaissance cabinets to rationalist museology is the Louvre. However, the first museum designed and constructed according to the ‘revolutionary’, ‘enlightened’ museum discipline is the Berlin Altes Museum, the work of Schinkel. Schinkel translates Boullée’s dreams into his own mind. The rotunda in the center of the museum is a reference to his friend Hegel as well as his master Boullée. The museum plan is a schematic diagram of the modern, rational, Greek-centric, historically historiographical art history of Winckelmann (1717-1768): Nations (national schools), each starting from ancient Greece, occupying separate galleries, are displayed in a hierarchical manner by their deeds, the progress of the history of civilization.

Altes Museum (Berlin)

Berlin Altes Museum


Berlin Altes Museum

In the book ‘The Remarkable of Istanbul, Zeynep Çelik’ tells about the public space and the westernization of the structures in the section until Abdulhamit is reduced from the throne. The difference of the Ottomans was that they did not live in a situation like colonization and it reacted differently than in other countries and this situation especially showed itself in Istanbul. She mentioned that the important point such as the reconstructed Byzantine period and the post-conquest Islamic viewpoint of the 19th century were the changes.

In this book, three main invented traditions are mentioned, first the laws and regulations in public areas and city design, the second is the mentality provided by these written laws and regulations, such as effective road networks, monumental squares and uniformed public cover, and the third in Europe the introduction of similarities to structures made with the newly emerging architectural vision.

In Ottoman Period, the first building designed as a museum was built by architect Paul Vaullary and opened in 1891. When it opened its name was Museum-i Hümayun, and today is Istanbul Archeology Museum. In this museum there were museum-school relation. Therefore we can say that this museum is a space where information is processed and exhibited and we looked at the façade of the structure, it is the reflection of collection inside the museum and become showcase of them.


Istanbul Archeology Museum


Istanbul Archeology Museum

Evkaf-ı Islamiye Museum,  which was the foundation of today’s Turkish Islamic Art Museum , was selected in 1914 by the works of the houses of the empire, and it was opened under the name of Süleymaniye Mosque. Museum has a courtyard and exhibition spaces surround this courtyard.


Ankara Ethnography Museum was desiged by Arif Hikmet Koyunoğlu in 1925-1927. The pieces are mostly religious and ethnic pieces. It also has a courtyard surrounded by display spaces.

Ankara Etnografya Müzesi



The site is in Konya Street, Çukurambar. In the vicinity of the site there are many health clinics. Therefore, as a group, we proposed to design a research and technology building on health. Such a building for the context of Çukurambar is quite reasonable since it is supposed to be cooperation with related facilities. Konya Street is so crucial because it has quite heavy vehicular traffic. Another surrounding street will be done when 1071 buildings are completed. It will be more living street when compared to Konya Street because of functions provided by 1071 buildings. Therefore, I decided on functions according to characteristics of the streets.

ARCH401_Begüm SARI_2

In program there are 3 main function which are labs, health clinic and academic. Therefore, masses are shaped according to these function as theoretical, practical and professional. And also there is another mass that creates social spaces. It envelopes and associates main spaces. Since labs and academic spaces should be more strict and controlled, this social mass by lifting up lab and academic masses, it limits direct access to them.

ARCH401_Begüm SARI_1

There is a park and with reference to this park green flows to down and make some terraces and also there is a small pedestrian road in site and slum houses use it to reach their house and with reference to it I created a social pedestrian road and I merged it with green to create social transition.

ARCH401_Begüm SARI_3